ul. Norwida 31
71 320 5403
71 320 5455
Head of Department
prof. dr hab. Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz
71 320 5432
1. Immunopharmacological research
Experimental studies are carried out in vitro on cells of the immune system (lymphocytes isolated from lymphoid organs or macrophages derived from peritoneal cavity of inbred strains of mice) and in vivo on laboratory animals (inbred strains of mice) as well as on breeding animals (chickens). The aim of conducted studies is to determine modulatory activity of natural and synthetic compounds on a cellular and humoral immune response.
Immunotropic effect of the test compounds on unstimulated or stimulated with mitogens (ConA, PHA or LPS from E. coli) cell cultures is determined depending on the concentration of compounds and incubation time. In vivo immunotropic effects of compounds are defined on animals with unchanged immune system, stimulated with antigens (SRBC or ovalbumin), treated with lipopolysaccharide from E. coli or pharmacologically suppressed by the administration of high dose of cyclophosphamide or hydrocortisone or subjected to acute stress (immobilization stress). Experimentally induced autoimmune syndrome is used as a model of rheumatoid arthritis. Immunotropic effects (immunocorrecting and / or immunostimulatory) are determined on selected experimental model depending on the dose of the test compound, number of subsequent administrations, route of administration, and the duration of action of the test substance.
a) Immunomodulatory properties of synthetic isoxazole derivatives
It is estimated that the immune-based diseases affect 3% of the human population and pose a serious challenge to modern medicine. Substances that could modulate functions of the immune cells and could be used in the treatment of immune-mediated diseases have been sought after for many years. Among the synthetic organic compounds, particularly interesting are derivatives of the five-membered isoxazole ring. They are characterized by a lack of cytotoxic effects and a number of valuable biological activities. The most characteristic is the ability to modulate functions of the immune system. Various already carried studies have confirmed the immunomodulatory activity of isoxazole derivatives both in vitro and in vivo. This activity is correlated with the chemical structure of the compounds and indicates their potential therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases as well as to reconstruct the activity of the immune system in the states of immunosuppression.
2. Molecular biology research
Tests are performed using the reference primary cultures of immune cells isolated from the central and peripheral lymphoid organs of mice (thymocytes, spleen cells, lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph nodes, and peritoneal macrophages) and established normal cell lines (murine fibroblasts, lymphoblasts, macrophages) as well as cancer cell lines (canine and human lymphomas and leukemias, osteosarcoma, canine mast cell tumors, canine and human breast cancer). Established and spontaneous cell lines (normal and cancer) are used to determine the anti-proliferative activity (cytotoxicity) of new chemical compounds that are tested depending on concentration and incubation time with selected normal and / or cancer cell line. The effect of test compounds on cell viability and proliferation is determined using the MTT and / or SRB assay. Established tumor cell lines are also used to determine the mechanism of antitumor activity of the test compounds by determination of their influence on the apoptosis of treated cells, cell-cycle and changes in the expression of signaling proteins, such as Fas, Bcl-2, transcription factor NF?B, p53, Bax and caspases.
a) In vitro evaluation of the antitumor activity of natural and synthetic compounds on canine cancer cell lines. Testing mechanisms and induction of cancer cell death. Induction and mechanistic study of cancer cell death.
Neoplastic diseases are diagnosed, not only in humans but also in animals. In dogs, except for infectious diseases, is the main cause of canine mortality. Spontaneously occurring cancers in dogs, like lymphoma and leukemia are an excellent model for studies, also useful in human medicine. Integration of studies of naturally occurring cancers in animals and their translation into more general research of the biology and therapy of cancer is an important direction of modern oncology. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of the cell death could help determine new prognostic factors and improve the treatment of various cancer types.
In our studies, we focus on searching for the new therapeutic strategies in various types of cancers in dogs by determining a number of known and new compounds with potential antitumor activity (viability and proliferation assays, apoptosis tests) and exploring mechanism of the observed cell death.
As a result of conducted research we have identified new compounds, e.g. aromatic lactones and platinum derivatives as potentially useful in the treatment of cancer in dogs. Studies of the mechanism of canine lymphoma/leukemia cell death enabled the detailed characteristics and the possibility to sensitize the cells to the Apo2/TRAIL ligand. By the establishment of a new cancer cell lines we have the appropriate tools to further research on the biology of lymphomas and leukemias in dogs.
b) Immunophenotypic characterization of canine lymphoma and leukemia.
Multiparameter flow cytometry is a very useful tool, both in human and veterinary oncology. The most common application of this technique is immunophenotyping of different types of leukocytes. Knowledge of the phenotype of cancer cells in canine lymphomas/leukemias allows to predict an individual patient prognosis and response to treatment. Ongoing research aims to evaluate the incidence of various types of lymphomas and leukemias in dogs as well as to provide information for clinicians, which may be useful in the therapeutic procedures.
3. Influence of physiological and pathological factors on variability in pharmacokinetics of veterinary drugs in animals.
Due to the global problem of emerging antimicrobial resistance and scarcity of new antibacterial agents, it is essential to develop and optimize new therapeutic tools and strategies that conform with the concept of “prudent use of antimicrobials”. Knowledge on pharmacokinetic alterations in rapidly growing poultry species enables the application of mathematical tools and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration, which may allow for precise and optimized dosing of antimicrobials in this group of animals. Our works focus on novel drug dosing methods which, on the one hand, may limit the selection for drug-resistant bacteria, and on the other, may limit the unnecessary drug use in animals just before the slaughter age. This may decrease veterinary contribution to antimicrobial resistance development and spread, increase food safety, improve animal welfare and limit excessive environmental contamination with antimicrobials in animal faeces.
4. Assessment of biological properties in vitro of novel nanomaterials.
Dynamic development of nanotechnology gives the opportunity to apply novel materials characterized by unique magnetic, mechanical, optic, chemical or biological properties. Their main common feature is the presence of structures within the nanometer range. Some of these materials may be employed in biomedicine as drug carriers, contrast agents, nanosensors or even direct therapeutic agents. However, before they can be used for these purposes, a detailed analysis of their influence on biological systems should be carried out. In the Division of Toxicology, we study the interaction of nanomaterials with components of biological media (zeta potential, hydrodynamic size, dispersion stability, protein adsorption) as well as their cytotoxicity and cellular internalization. Drug release studies from nanocarriers were also performed. These projects are conducted in cooperation with INTiBS Polish Academy of Sciences in Wrocław.
5. Research in the field of veterinary toxicology
In population studies, concentrations of heavy metals are investigated in the tissues of wild and breeding animals and in the feeds.
1. The effect of Caltha palustris L. herb extracts on cellular and humoral immune response in mouse experimental autoimmune model. (N N308 569439) Leader Prof. Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz.
2. Innovative technologies of production of biological preparations based on the new generation of eggs. Research task No. 10: Safety assessment of obtained from the content of the eggs bioproducts by identifying their cytotoxic activity on the normal cell lines and determining their immunomodulatory properties. Leader of the research task No. 10 Prof. Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz.
3. Study on the use of primary cultures and established cell lines of canine lymphoma in the diagnosis and treatment of lymphoma in dogs.Project NCN (2011/01/ N/NZ5/02833). Leader dr Aleksandra Pawlak.
4. Combined induction of cell death in canine leukemia and lymphoma cells. Project NCN (2011/03/B/NZ5/01533). Performer dr Aleksandra Pawlak and Prof. Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz.
5. Immunomodulatory properties of the 5-amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide and its derivatives. Grant funded by the Marshal Office of Lower Silesia. Project "GRANT PLUS" (European Union, European Social Found, DG-G/3357/14). Leader dr Angelika Drynda.
6. Effects of rapid weight gain on tylosin and enrofloxacin pharmacokinetics in turkeys - dosage modelling and validation based on pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration. Project NCN SONATA (2016/21/D/NZ7/01053). Leader dr Błażej Poźniak.
1. Szczypka, M., Ploch S., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B.: Modulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine production by selective and nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitors administered to mice. Pharmacological Reports, 2012, 64(1), 179-184 (IF: 2.465)
2. Zimecki M, Artym J, Kocięba M, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B, Mączyński M, Ryng S: Restoration of immune system function is accelerated in immunocompromised mice by the B-cell-tropic isoxazole R-11. Pharmacological Reports, 2012, 64(2), 403-11 (IF: 2.465).
3. Jine Ye, Lis M, Szczypka M, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B: Influence of betulinie acid on lymphocyte subsets and humoral immune response in mice. Pol J Vet Sci, 2012, 15(2), 305-13 (IF: 0.565).
4. Sijun D, Pawlak A, Poźniak B, Suszko A, Szczypka M, Hui Y, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B: Effects of gossypol acetic acid on cellular and humoral immune response in non-immunized and SRBC-immunized mice. Central European Journal of Immunology 2012; 37 (1): 11-19 (IF: 0.378).
5. Piekarska J, Gorczykowski M, Szczypka M, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B: The influence of immunosuppression on apoptosis and necrosis Turing experimental trichinellosis In mice. Central European Journal of immunology, 2012, 37(1), 11-19 (IF: 0.378).
6. Szczypka M, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B: Influence of nonselective and selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on cAMP levels In lymphocytes after a single administration in mice. Central European Journal of Immunology, 2012, 37(3), 200-03 (IF: 0.378).
7. Suszko A, Szczypka M, Lis M, Kuduk-Jaworska J, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B,: Influence of polysacharide fraction C isolated from Caltha palustris L on T and B lymphocyte subsets in mice. Central European Journal of immunology. 2012, 37(3), 193-99 (IF: 0.378).
8. Poźniak, B., Świtała, M., Bobrek, K., Graczyk, S., & Dzimira, S. (2012). Adverse effects associated with high-dose acetylsalicylic acid and sodium salicylate treatment in broilers. British Poultry Science, 53(6), 777-783 (IF: 0.933).
1. Suszko A., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B.: Influence of polysaccharide fractions isolated from Caltha palustris L. on cellular immune response in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. A comparison with methotrexate. Journal of Ethnopharmacology , 2013, 145(1), 109-117 (IF: 2.998).
2. Lis M., Szczypka M., Suszko A., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B.: The effects of bestatin on humoral response to sheep erythrocytes in non-treated and cyclophosphamide-immunocompromised mice. Immunopharmacology Immunotoxicology , 2013, 35(1), 133-138 (IF: 1.209).
3. Szczypka M., Lis M., Suszko A., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B.: The activity of phagocytic cells after in vivo administration of propentofylline in mice. Central European Journal of Immunology 2013, 38(2), 169-174 (IF: 0.378).
4. Suszko A., Szczypka M., Lis M., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B.: Modulation of murine T and B lymphocyte subsets by polysaccharide fraction B isolated from Caltha palustris L. Central European Journal of Immunology, 2013, 38 (2), 175-182 (IF: 0.378).
5. Lis M., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B.: Modulatory effects of bestatin on T and B lymphocyte subsets and the concentration of cytokines released by TH1/Th2 lymphocytes in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Central European Journal of Immunology, 2013, 38(1), 42-53 (IF: 0.378).
6. Pawlak A, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B, Rapak A: The dog as a model for comparative studies of lymphoma and leukemia in humans., Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej, 2013; 67: 471-480 (IF: 0.633).
7. Gładkowski W., Skrobiszewski A., Mazur M., Siepka M., Pawlak A., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B., Białońska A., Poradowski D., Drynda A., Urbaniak M.: Synthesis and anticancer activity of novel halolactones with ß-aryl substituents from simple aromatic aldehydes. Tetrahedron 2013; 69(48): 10414-10423 (IF: 2.641).
8. Barycza B., Pawlak A., Poradowski D., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B., Wawrzeńczyk Cz., Synteza i aktywność cytotoksyczna estrów betuliny i kwasu betulinowego z kwasami terpenowymi Przemysł Chemiczny 2013, 92, 5, 806 (IF: 0.367).
9. Poźniak, B., Świtała, M., Jaworski, K., Okoniewski, P., & Niewiński, P. (2013). Comparative pharmacokinetics of acetylsalicylic acid and sodium salicylate in chickens and turkeys. British Poultry Science, 54(4), 538-544 (IF: 0.933).
1. Drynda A., Mączyński M., Ryng S., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B. In vitro immunomodulatory effects of 5-amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide on the cellular immune response. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 2014; 36(2): 150-157 (IF: 1.617).
2. Pawlak A, Rapak A, Zbyryt I, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B. The Effect of Common Antineoplastic Agents on Induction of Apoptosis in Canine Lymphoma and Leukemia Cell Lines. In Vivo 2014; 28(5), 843-850 (IF: 1.219).
3. Skrobiszewski A., Gładkowski W., Lis M., Gliszczyńska A., Maciejewska G., Klejdysz T., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B., Nawrot J., Wawrzeńczyk Cz.: Lactones. Part 45a. Synthesis of hydroxylactones with aromatic ring and evaluation of their antifeedant and antiproliferative activity. Przemysł Chemiczny. 2014 (IF: 0.367).
1. Drynda A., Mączyński M., Ryng S., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B. The effect of 5-amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide on lymphocyte subsets and humoral immune response in SRBC-immunized mice. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 2015; 37(2): 148-157 (IF: 1.617).
2. Zimecki M., Artym J., Kocięba M., Obminska-Mrukowicz B., Mączyński M., Ryng S.: Immune function in cyclophosphamide-treated mice is restored by the T-cell tropic isoxazole derivative R-13. Journal of Immunotoxicology. 2015, 12(4):322-329 (IF: 2.054).
3. Poźniak B, Pawlak A, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B. Flow Cytometric Assessment of P-glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein Activity and Expression in Canine Lymphoma. In Vivo, 2015, 29.1: 149-153 (IF: 1.219).
4. Ciaputa R., Poradowski D., Janus I., Nowak M., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B., Madej J.A., Kandefer-Gola M.: Analysis of the expression of N-cadherin and survivin in an established D-17 cell line and in canine cells of spontaneous osteosarcoma. Medycyna Weterynaryjna – Veterinary Medicine – Science and Practice. 2015,71 (6) pages: 349-353 (IF: 0.218).
5. Wiglusz, R. J., Pozniak, B., Zawisza, K., & Pazik, R. (2015). An up-converting HAP@ ß-TCP nanocomposite activated with Er 3+/Yb 3+ ion pairs for bio-related applications. RSC Advances, 5(35), 27610-27622 (IF: 3.840).
6. Poźniak B., Grabowski T., Motykiewicz-Pers K., Bobrek K., Rak L., Bobusia K., Gaweł A., Świtała M.: Pharmacokinetics of repeated sodium salicylate administration to laying hens: evidence for time dependent increase in drug elimination from plasma and eggs. Plos One, 2015 , 10 (4 )10s.; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123526 (IF: 3.234).
7. Pązik, R., Zięcina, A., Zachanowicz, E., Małecka, M., Poźniak, B., Miller, J., Śniadecki, J., Pierunek, N., Idzikowski, B., Mrówczyńska, L. & Ekner-Grzyb, A., Wiglusz, R. (2015). Synthesis, Structural Features, Cytotoxicity, and Magnetic Properties of Colloidal Ferrite Spinel Co1–xNixFe2O4 (0.1? x? 0.9) Nanoparticles. European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2015(28), 4750-4760 (IF: 2.686).
1. Pruchnik H., Kral T., Poradowski D., Pawlak A., Drynda A., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B., Hof M. New cytotoxic butyltin complexes with 2-sulfobenzoic acid: Molecular interaction with lipid bilayers and DNA as well as in vitro anticancer activity. Chemico-Biological Interactions 2016; 243: 107-118 (IF: 2.618).
2. Pawlak A., Rapak A., Drynda A., Poradowski D., Zbyryt I., Dzimira S., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B. Immunophenotypic characterization of canine malignant lymphoma: a retrospective study of cases diagnosed in Poland Lower Silesia, over the period 2011–2013. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology 2016; 14: 52-60 (IF: 2.452).
3. Drynda A., Obminska-Mrukowicz B., Zaczyńska E., Zimecki M., Ryng S., Maczynski M. Immunoregulatory effects of 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(5-amino-3-methylisoxazole-4-carbonyl)-thiosemicarbazide (06K) in non-immunized and SRBC-immunized mice. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2016; 68(12): 1613-1620 (IF: 2.363).
4. Pawlak A, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B, Zbyryt I, Rapak A. In vitro drug sensitivity in canine lymphoma. Journal of Veterinary Research, 2016, 60(1), 55-61.
5. De Miguel D, Gallego-Lleyda A, M Ayuso J, Pawlak A, Conde B, Ochoa I, ... & Martinez-Lostao, L. Improved Anti-Tumor Activity of Novel Highly Bioactive Liposome-Bound TRAIL in Breast Cancer Cells. Recent patents on anti-cancer drug discovery 2016; 11(2): 197-214 (IF: 3.533).
6. Gładkowski W, Skrobiszewski A, Mazur M, Gliszczyńska A, Czarnecka M, Pawlak A, Białońska A. Chiral ?-iodo-?-lactones derived from cuminaldehyde, 2, 5-dimethylbenzaldehyde and piperonal: chemoenzymatic synthesis and antiproliferative activity. Tetrahedron: Asymmetry, 2016, 27(6), 227-237 (IF: 2.108).
7. Pawlak A, Ziolo E, Kutkowska J, Blazejczyk A, Wietrzyk J, Hildebrand W, Dzimira S, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B, Strzadala L, Rapak A. A novel canine B-cell leukemia cell line. Establishment, characterization and sensitivity to chemotherapeutics, Veterinary and Comparative Oncology 2016 doi: 10.1111/vco.12257 (IF: 2.425).
8. Świtała, M., Poźniak, B., Pasławska, U., Grabowski, T., Motykiewicz-Pers, K., & Bobrek, K. (2016). Metronidazole pharmacokinetics during rapid growth in turkeys–relation to changes in haemodynamics and drug metabolism. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics (IF: 1.279).
9. Zachanowicz, E., Zięcina, A., Mikołajczyk, P. A., Rogacki, K., Małecka, M., Marycz, K., Marędziak, M., Poźniak, B., Nowakowska, M., Tikhomirov, M., Miller, J., Wiglusz, R., Pązik, R. (2016). Cytotoxic Effects of Co1–xMnxFe2O4 Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized under Non-Hydrolytic Conditions (Bradley's Reaction)–In Vitro. European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2016(34), 5315-5323 (IF: 2.686).
10. Pazik, R., Zięcina, A., Poźniak, B., Malecka, M., Marciniak, L., & Wiglusz, R. J. (2016). Up-conversion emission and in vitro cytotoxicity characterization of blue emitting, biocompatible SrTiO 3 nanoparticles activated with Tm 3+ and Yb 3+ ions. RSC Advances, 6(45), 39469-39479 (IF: 3.289).
11. Gawdzik B., Wzorek A, Kamizela A, Urbaniak M., Gładkowski W., Lis M, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B., Białońska A.: ß-Aryl-?-Hydroxy-?-Lactones: Synthesis, Structural Analysis and Cytotoxic Activity. Current Organic Chemistry, 2016, (13), 901-906 (IF: 1.340).
12. Poradowski D., Ciaputa R., Obmińska-Mrukowicz B., Nowak M., Górzyńska E., Janus I.: Comparison of cel markers expression in canine and human spontaneous osteosarcoma and established osteosarcoma cell lines. Pakistan Veterinary Journal 2016, 36 (1), 25-30 (IF: 0.822).
1. Pawlak A, Gładkowski W, Mazur M, Henklewska M, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B, Rapak A. Optically active stereoisomers of 5-(1-iodoethyl)-4-(4'-isopropylphenyl)dihydrofuran-2-one: The effect of the configuration of stereocenters on apoptosis induction in canine cancer cell lines. Chemico-Biological Interactions 2017, 5;261:18-26 (IF: 2.618).
2. Henklewska M, Pawlak A, Pruchnik H, Obmińska-Mrukowicz B. Complex of Platinum(II) with Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine Induces Apoptosis in Canine Lymphoma/Leukemia Cell Lines. Anticancer Research 2017, doi: 10.21873/anticanres.11xxx (IF: 1.985).
3. Drynda A., Obminska-Mrukowicz B., Zaczyńska E., Zimecki M., Kochanowska I., Ryng, S., Maczynski M. 5-Amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide derivatives with in vitro immunomodulatory activities. Chemical Biology & Drug Design 2017; DOI:10.1111/cbdd.12892 (IF: 2.802).
4. Poźniak, M., Pawłowski, P., Pasławska, U., Grabowski, T., Suszko, A., Lis, M., Świtała, M. (2017) The influence of rapid growth in broilers on florfenicol pharmacokinetics – allometric modelling of the pharmacokinetic and haemodynamic parameters. British Poultry Science, DOI: 10.1080/00071668.2016.1261994 (IF: 0.933).
dr hab. Marianna Szczypka. Title: The effect of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE): aminophylline, milrinone and sildenafil on the immune system of mice (2014).
1. Agnieszka Suszko-Pawłowska, PhD. Title: The effect of Caltha palustris L. herb extracts on cellular and humoral immune response in mouse experimental autoimmune model” (2012). Director of the thesis Prof. Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz.
2. Błażej Poźniak, PhD. Title: Comparison of the pharmacological properties of acetylsalicylic acid and sodium salicylate in chickens and turkeys, in relation to adverse reactions (2012). Director of the thesis Prof. Marcin Świtała.
3. Aleksandra Pawlak, PhD. Title: Phenotypic characterization of canine lymphoma and leukemia cells and in vitro evaluation of their sensitivity to cytostatic drugs (2014). Director of the thesis Prof. Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz
4. Angelika Drynda, PhD. Title: The immunomodulatory properties of the 5-amino-3-methyl-4-isoxazolecarboxylic acid hydrazide and its derivatives (2015). Director of the thesis Prof. Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz.
5. Dominik Poradowski, PhD. Title: Effect of NSAIDs and bisphosphonates on activity of selected cytostatic in in vitro studies on established cell lines of canine and human osteosarcoma (2015). Director of the thesis Prof. Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz.
• Upright freezers (-86°C): VTS-258 (Syngen), U410 (New Brunswick Scientific)
• Cooled incubator MIR154 (Sanyo)
• CO2 Incubator MCO-18AIC (Sanyo)
• Orbital shaker MIR-S100 (Sanyo)
• Multimode microplate reader Spark 10M (Tecan)
• Absorbance microplate reader Elx800 (Biotek Instruments)
• Refrigerated centrifuge Megafuge 11R (Thermo Scientific)
• Inverted microscope PrimoVert (Zeiss)
• Microscope Opton Axioplan (Zeiss)
• Laminar flow cabinet SafeMate 1.2 (Bio Air Instruments)
• Autoclave Exacta (Mocom)
• Water bath (Memmert)
• Analytical balance Discovery (Ohaus)
• Liquid chromatograph (Waters 2475)
• Homogenizer PRO 200 (PRO Scientific)