Division of Microbiology

Division of Microbiology

ul. C. K. Norwida 31
51-375 Wrocław

phone 71 320 5238
fax 71 320 5251

Head of Division
dr hab. Jarosław Król, prof. uczelni phone 71 320 1064 email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Division's staff
dr hab. Barbara Bażanów, prof. uczelniphone 71 320 5038 email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
dr Magdalena Florek, adiunkt phone 71 320 5430 email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
dr Anna Matczuk adiunkt phone 71 320 5238 email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
dr Anna Wanecka, asystent email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
mgr inż. Maja Marynowska
lic. Aleksandra Pogorzelska
lic. Krzysztof Ulanicki

Professor emeritus
prof. dr hab. Zdzisław Staroniewicz email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Identification and characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from intramammary infections (IMI) in cattle. Working team: Jarosław Król, Anna Wanecka
In many countries, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have been isolated more and more frequently from cases of IMI in cattle (Pyörälä i Taponen, 2009; Lange i wsp. 2015). There is an increasing evidence that these microorganisms represent a heterogeneous population that vary in pathogenicity, specific host-pathogen relationships and resistance to antimicrobials (Zadoks i Watts, 2009; Podkowik i wsp., 2012). Therefore, accurate species identification of CNS associated with mastitis in cows may be of practical importance for the determination of both epidemiologic (e.g. possible sources and modes of transmission of a microorganism), as well as clinical aspects of the infection. Our research is focused on elaboration of the most useful methods of the identification of CNS by various diagnostic methods (sequencing of the 16S rRNA and “housekeeping” genes, MALDI-TOF technique, determining of phenotypic properties) (an article and doctoral dissertation of Anna Wanecka are in preparation).
The knowledge on CNS isolated from intramammary infections in cattle, despite intensive research of many investigators, seems to be still insufficient. It turns out that IMIs may be, to a higher and higher degree, caused by atypical and rarely encountered CNS that are poorly characterized clinically and epidemiologically. An example of such microorganisms may be Staphylococcus microti, detected by us in a group of animals on a dairy farm (Król i wsp. 2016). We found out that all isolates of that species, recovered in the nearly 2-year-period, belonged to the same genotype, thus suggesting a contagious form of mastitis. This is a novel finding because CNS have been so far considered to be environmental pathogens, not spreading from cow to cow easily. A similar situation may apply to a closely related species, Staphylococcus rostri, isolated by us on another farm (an article under preparation).

Epidemiology of fungal infections of the C. neoformans/C. gattii. - Magdalena Florek
Cryptococcosis is an infectious disease of humans and animals occurring worldwide. It is assumed, about 1 mln of cases of human infections is noted annually, among them 62,5% eventually ends with death of a patient. Data concerning frequency of cryptococcosis in animals is lacking, though it was estimated that during the largest outbreak of Cryptococcus gattii infections that took place in Canada, number of animal cases observed was about 75% higher than those of human cases. Cryptococcosis, associated mainly with CNS and respiratory infections, is caused by a complex of fungi occurring in an environment and belonging to the genus Cryptococcus (C. neoformans/C. gattii complex). The main source of infectious propagules of the pathogen are tree and pigeon feces.
Using several genotyping methods, eight molecular types were distinguish among the complex, which differ in presence of virulence factors, course of infection they cause, epidemiology, geographic extent, ecological niche and mating type. There are reports showing that the most virulent molecular types display different resistance patterns against antimycotic drugs. The molecular types also correspond with the new classification of C. neoformans/C. gattii complex, which was introduced in 2015.
In Poland, cryptococcosis is not notifiable disease, neither animal nor humans cases, epidemiological investigation considering an environmental contamination with above mentioned fungi have never been carried on, moreover Cryptococcus strains occurring in the country are usually not identified to the species/molecular type level.
In order to evaluate the occurrence of fungi belonging to the C. neoformans/C. gattii complex, the isolation is carried out from environmental samples (tree swabs, samples of soil, pigeon feces). Obtained environmental isolates as well as clinical strains originating from animals and humans (cooperation with Wrocław Medical University) are analyzed using MLST method and their mating type is determined.
Research planned will allow to assess the occurrence of fungi of C. neoformans/C. gattii complex in the environment of Lower Silesia area as well as to compare frequency of occurrence of particular molecular types among clinical and environmental isolates.

Abortogenic viruses in horses - virological and epizootiological studies. Working team: Barbara Bażanów, Łukasz Gadzała
Abortogenic viruses are one of the main reason of abortion in horses. These includes equine arteritis virus (EAV), equine herpesvirus type 1(EHV-1) and sporadically equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4). Infection of these pathogens causes huge economic losses and problems with international trade of horses. These infections are dangerous, because often there are not limited to individual animals, and often spread within the herd. Additionally, these viruses cause many respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, serous, mucous or purulent disharge from the nose or coughing. Similar symptoms are observed during infection of other, widely widespread in Poland viruses of horses, which influence on a health status and productivity of these animals: equine influenza virus (Orthomyxoviridae) H7N7 and H3N8 and horses rhinoviruses ERhV type A, B1 and B2 (Picornaviridae). West Nile virus (WNV) and USUTU virus begin to appear in horses in the country, that in addition to the general symptoms cause inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. The purpose of the research carried out by the laboratory is monitoring of the epizootic situation of abortion and respiratory diseases in horses (EAV, EHV, ERhV and equine influenza virus), and determination of the WNV infection level by using: virus isolation method in cell cultures and hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests. Seroconversion of WNV is tested in cooperation with National Health Laboratory Service in Johannesburg (South Africa) using ELISA test. blood serum, semen, organs of aborted fetuses, nasal swabs and archival materials from horses are used in the investigation. In addition, genetic studies are carried out on isolated viruses. Other activities include work on newly synthesized chemicals as potential disinfectants. Experiments on the cytotoxicity and virucidal properties of these compounds are carried out in cooperation with the University of Wrocław, and substances meeting the criteria of disinfectants may be used to disinfection of stables or skin and mucous membranes in horse. In addition to the standard methods, techniques based on luminescence and fluorescence are used. A similar series of studies on the substances of plant origin is carried out in cooperation with the Department of Phytopathologyof UP in Wrocław.

Virological, serological and molecular diagnosis of selected viral infections in birds living in the wild. - Barbara Bażanów
Viruses affecting wild birds in Polish are poorly know yet. The overal goal of this study is isolation and identification of viruses from sick or dead birds naturally occurring in the wild. Research includes a wide range of tests: isolation of infectious agents in embryonated chicken eggs, continuous cell lines RK-13, BHK and Vero, and in the primary chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture. Further experiments are based on the TEM and molecular biology techniques ,in which isolated an cytophatogenic agent is checked for belonging to one of a few selected families of viruses, e.g. herpesviruses, paramyxoviruses, poxviruses and filoviruses.

Research projects
1. „Study on the intracellular location of the complex glycoproteins GP2/GP3/GP4 and possible factors in the retention - role in the creation of infectious virions of the EAV”. Project 12/7-W/2014/G. Period 2014-2017 Leader Anna Matczuk
2. „Study of antimycotic activity of inhibitors of cysteins proteas from eggs protein.” Project NI.4211.uk/4/7-W/2014. Period 2015. Leader Magdalena Florek
3. „Study of Viricidali and cytotoxicity of cystatin and comparatively cystatin available commercially.” Project NI.4211.uk/9/7-W/2014. Period 2015. Leader Barbara Bażanów
4. „Analysis of the types of molecular strains of fungi belonging to the resort Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii isolated on the territory of the Lower Silesia.” Project 1/PB/2016 KNOW. Period 2016. Leader Magdalena Florek

1. J.Buczkowska, R. Kozdrowski, M. Nowak, A. Raś, Z. Staroniewicz, M. Siemieniuch, Comparison of the biopsy and cytobrush techniques for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in mares. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2014, 12,27 (IF: 2,409)
2. S. Jaros, M. Guedes da Silva, M. Florek, M. Oliviera, P.Smoleński, A. Pomberio, A.Kirillov. Aliphatic Dicarboxylate Directed Assembly of Silver(I) 1,3,5-Triaza-7-phosphaadamantane Coordination Networks: Topological Versatility and Antimicrobial Activity. Cryst. Growth Des. 2014, 14, 5408-5417.(IF: 4,558)
3. M.Florek, J.Król, Z. Staroniewicz, B. Bażanów. Adhesion of Malassezia pachydermatis of different growth type to canine epithelial cells. POL J VET SC 2014, 17,365-366 (IF: 0,712)
4. B.Bażanów, A. Frącka, N. Jackulak, Z. Staroniewicz, S. Ploch. A 34-year retrospective study of equine viral abortion in Poland. POL J VET SCI 2014, 17,607-612 (IF: 0,712)
5. Starosta R., Florek M., Król J., Puchalska M., Kochel A.: Copper(I) iodide complexes containing new aliphatic aminophosphine ligands and diimines – luminescent properties and antibacterial activity. New J. Chem. 2010, 34, 1441-1449. (IF : 2,605)
6. Król J., Bania J., Florek M., Pliszczak-Król A., Staroniewicz Z.: Polymerase chain reaction-based identification of clinically relevant Pasteurellaceae isolated from cats and dogs in Poland. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 2011, 23(5), 532-537. (IF: 1,214)
7. Król J., Bania J., Podkowik M., Florek M., Pliszczak-Król A., Staroniewicz Z.: Genetic diversity of Pasteurella dagmatis as assessed by analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences. Curr. Microbiol. 2011, 63 (1), 87-93. (IF: 1,815)
8. Starosta R., Stokowa K., Florek M., Król J., Chwiłkowska A., Kulbacka J., Saczko J., Skała J., Jeżowska-Bojczuk M.: Biological activity and structure dependent properties of cuprous iodide complexes with phenanthrolines and water soluble tris (aminomethyl) phosphanes. J. Inorg. Biochem. 2011, 105, 1102-1108. (IF: 3,354)
9. Kirillov A.M., Wieczorek S.W., Lis A., Guedes da Silva M.F.C., Florek M., Król J., Staroniewicz Z., Smoleński P., Pombeiro A.J.L.: 1,3,5-Triaza-7-phosphaadamantane-7-oxide (PTA=O): New Diamondoid Building Block for Design of Three-Dimensional Metal-Organic Frameworks. Cryst. Growth Des. 2011, 11, 2711-2716. (IF: 4,720)
10. Starosta R., Brzuszkiewicz A., Bykowska A, Komarnicka U.K., Bażanów B., Florek M., Gadzała Ł., Jackulak N., Król J., Marycz K.: A novel copper(I) complex, [CuI(2,2'-biquinoline)P(CH2N(CH2CH2)2O)3] – Synthesis, characterisation and comparative studies on biological activity. Polyhedron 2013, 50 (1), 481-489. (IF: 2,047)
11. Starosta R., Bykowska A., Kyzioł A., Płotek M., Florek M., Król J., Jeżowska-Bojczuk M.: Copper(I) (Pseudo)Halide Complexes with Neocuproine and Aminomethylphosphines Derived from Morpholine and Thiomorpholine – In Vitro Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activity and the Interactions with DNA and Serum Albumins. Chemical Biology and Drug Design 2013, 82, 579-586. (IF: 2,507)
12. Bykowska A., Starosta R., Brzuszkiewicz A., Bażanów B., Florek M., Jackulak N., Król J., Grzesiak J., Kaliński K., Jeżowska-Bojczuk M.: Synthesis, properties and biological activity of a novel phosphines ligand derived from ciprofloxacin. Polyhedron 2013, 60, 23-29. (IF: 2,047)
13. Jaros S.W., Smoleński P., Guedes da Silva M.F.C., Florek M., Król J., Staroniewicz Z., Pombeiro A.J.L., Kirillov A.M.: New silver BioMOFs driven by 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane-7-sulfide (PTA=S): synthesis, topological analysis and antimicrobial activity. Cryst Eng Comm 2013, 15, 8060-8064. (IF: 3,858 )
14. M. Florek M., Król J., Staroniewicz Z., Bażanów B.: Adhesion of Malassezia pachydermatis of different growth type to canine epithelial cells. Pol. J. Vet. Sci. 2014, 17, 365-366. (IF: 0,712)
15. Houszka M., Dzimira S., Król J., Kandefer-Gola M., Ciaputa R., Sobieraj L., Podkowik M.: Streptococcal endocarditis in a captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). Journal of ZOO and Wildlife Medicine 2014, 45, 635-637. (IF: 0,315)
16. Król J., Twardoń J., Mrowiec J., Podkowik M., Dejneka G., Dębski B., Nowicki T., Zalewski W.: Streptococcus canis is able to establish a persistent udder infection in a dairy herd. J. Dairy Sci. 2015, 98, 7090-7096.(IF: 2,573)
17. Król J., Wanecka A., Twardoń J., Mrowiec J., Dropińska A., Bania J., Podkowik M., Korzeniowska-Kowal A., Paściak M.: Isolation of Staphylococcus microti from milk of dairy cows with mastitis. Vet. Microbiol. 2016, 182, 163-169. (IF: 2,511)
18. Jaros S.W., Guedes da Silva M.F.C., Król J., Oliveira M.C., Smoleński P., Pombeiro A.J.L., Kirillov A.M.: Bioactive Silver–Organic Networks Assembled from 1,3,5-Triaza-7-phosphaadamantane and Flexible Cyclohexanecarboxylate Blocks. Inorg. Chem. 2016, 55, 1486-1496. (IF: 4,762)
19. Pliszczak-Król A., Rząsa A., Gemra M., Król J., Łuczak G., Zyzak A., Zalewski D., Iwaszko-Simonik A., Graczyk S.: Age-related changes of platelet and plasma coagulation parameters in young pigs. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 2016, 28 (5), 561-567. (IF: 1,196 )
20. Sikora M., Król J., Nowak M., Stefaniak T., Aubertsson G., Kozdrowski R.: The usefulness of uterine lavage and acute phase protein levels as a diagnostic tool for subclinical endometritis in Icelandic mares. Acta Vet. Scand. 2016, 58, 50-59. (IF: 1,230)
21. Kosecka-Strojek M., Ilczyszyn W.M., Buda A., Polakowska K., Murzyn K., Panz T., Białecka A., Kasprowicz A., Jakubczak A., Król J., Wieliczko A., Władyka B., Międzobrodzki J.: Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat fingerprinting as a method for rapid and cost-effective typing of animal-associated Staphylococcus aureus strains from lineages other than ST398. J. Med. Microbiol. 2916, 65, 1-11. (IF: 2,269 )
22. Sabina W. Jaros, M. Fátima C. Guedes da Silva, M. Florek, Piotr Smoleński, Armando J. L. Pombeiro, Alexander M. Kirillov.,: Silver(I) 1,3,5-Triaza-7-phosphaadamantane Coordination Polymers Driven by Substituted Glutarate and Malonate Building Blocks: Self-Assembly Synthesis, Structural Features, and Antimicrobial Properties. Inorganic Chemistry 2016, 55(12), 5886-5894. (IF: 4,82)
23. Matczuk AK, Kuczkowski M, Woźniakowski G, Nowak M, Wieliczko A., Niczyporuk JS: Whole genome sequencing of Fowl Aviadenovirus A- a causative agent of gizzard erosion and ulceration, in adult laying hens. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 2016, 48, 47-53. (IF: 2,59)
24. Jaros S.W., Guedes da Silva M.F.C., Król J., Oliveira M.C., Smoleński P., Pombeiro A.J.L., Kirillov A.M.: Bioactive Silver–Organic Networks Assembled from 1,3,5-Triaza-7-phosphaadamantane and Flexible Cyclohexanecarboxylate Blocks. Inorg. Chem. 2016, 55, 1486-1496. (IF: 4,82)

PhD theses
Jarosław Król, post-doctorate thesis 2013. Title: Phenotopic properties and genotype-based identyfication of bacteria belonging to Pasteurellaceae isilated from dog and cats.

Research equipment
• Laminar flow cabinet ESCO Class II BSC (Airstream)
• Laminar flow cabinet HLB 2448G (Heraus LaminAir)
• Laminar flow cabinet (Alpina)
• Inverted microscope (ZEISS)
• CO2 incubator CO2-Auto-Zero (Heraeus)
• Microbiological incubator (ISA)
• Centrifuge Thermo Scientific (Heraeus)
• Centrifuge Eppendorf (MiniSpin)
• Centifuge MPW-220
• UV-Transluminator (UST20M-8KE)
• Thermal cycler MJ-Mini (BioRad)
• Incubator Conbest
• Incubator Bio TDB-100 (BioSan)
• Water bath LW102 (AJL Electronic)

Research offer
1. Bacteriological examination
2. Antimicrobial susceptibility test
3. Mycological examination
4. Autovaccination against papilloma
5. Serum-neutralization reaction in cells line (EHV1, EAV, ERhV)
6. Isolation of viruses from tissues of aborted fetus of horses
7. Isolation of the EAV from the stallions sperm

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